Lacy Nichols Updated February 21, A genogram is a more complicated version of a family tree that uses symbols and shapes to illustrate connections and patterns among family members. A genogram differs from the typical family tree, as a family tree simply links child to parent while a genogram also establishes information about family members' major life events, experiences and even illnesses. If you are constructing a genogram, there are some disadvantages, as well as benefits, to consider. Medical History One reson that so many people are interested in their family history is because of their curiosity about hereditary diseases and medical issues.
Evolution of Free Trade Zones Table 4: Direct employment in Free Trade Zones Table 6: Government revenue and costs from zone development List of Graphs Graph 1: The Share of EPZ export in Total Export Abbreviations Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Abstract In pursuit of development, governments of developing countries have adopted different industrialisation strategies over the years.
One of such approach to industrialisation is export —oriented manufacturing and the common policy instrument adopted to stimulate commercial export has been the establishment of free trade zones. This paper tries to find out the possible benefits and disadvantages associated with the creation of free trade zones as a strategy for industrialisation.
The first part tries to explain what constitutes free trade zone by various authorities on the subject, the types and origin of free trade zones. The second part identifies the various posits on the impact of free trade zone. The third section identifies some of the benefits and shortcomings of free trade zones as an industrialisation strategy.
The final part makes up the conclusion and recommendations. For instance it generates foreign earnings, increases employment and the gross national product of the country.
In an attempt to increase national exports, Advantages disadvantages of constructing a create free trade zones FTZs to attract foreign investors usually by exploiting their comparative advantage.
More than developing and transition economies currently implement some form of free zone policy for the supply of goods and services to foreign markets. These zones are characterised by incentives or privileges that enable investors to maximise profits and allow for all types of trade, industrial or service activities.
The main reason for the proliferation in the use of this policy tool is the apparent success of these zones in some countries and the confluence of four trends: Today, different types of zones have been established throughout the world especially in developing countries see Table 1 to stimulate export growth, spearhead industrialisation and achieve development.
What is a free trade zone? Free trade zone FTZ also known as foreign trade zone in the United States and export processing zone EPZ in developing countries have dramatically increased over the last three decades. While some scholars differentiate between free trade zones and export processing zones on the basis that manufactured products in the former are allowed full access to the domestic market and the later offered limited access and mainly for exports, other scholars make no distinction Yusen, n.
It has, however, been noted that the different terminologies that have been used over time and space often reflect the specific activities carried out within that particular zone UNESCAP, In general, normal trade barriers in the form of tariffs and quotas are eliminated in FTZs and bureaucratic requirements and procedures are lowered to attract new business and foreign investments WEDC, Alternatively, the Encyclopaedia Britannica defines a free trade zone as an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and re-exported without the intervention of the customs.
As reiterated by Engman et ala frequent reference to EPZs is free trade zones which date back to the 19th century. Moreover, most FTZs located in developing countries have export processing zones programmes to promote industrial and commercial exports.
Given the similarity, this paper uses the terms interchangeably to refer to all types of zones or enclaves covered by government policy framework of custom - free manufacturing and services.
Overview of Free Trade Zones The first FTZ was established in Ireland as the Shannon Industrial Estate in to promote employment, make use of the small regional airport and generate revenue for the national economy.
The success of the FTZ promoted its establishment in other countries. The first Asian zone was created in India infollowed by Taiwan in and South Korea in the late s and early s. From the s, many developing nations began to implement export-oriented growth strategies to promote industrialisation.
Thus, the creation of FTZs became a policy strategy that replaced the import-substitution policy approach inward-oriented as they began to focus on increasing exports outward-oriented to promote industrialisation and economic development. In79 FTZs existed globally, employing aroundpeople.
The majority of zone enterprises worldwide were engaged in labour-intensive, assembly-oriented activities such as apparel, textiles, electrical and electronic goods. In the past years, EPZs have been implemented at two different developmental stages in developing countries.
One set of countries Mauritius, Dominican Republic, and China adopted EPZ policies in the early stages of their industrial development, to act as "engine of growth" by encouraging production and export diversification to propel their economies into industrialization. Additionally, the purpose, activities and ownership of FTZs has changed overtime.
Most FTZs are now established to attract both foreign and domestic companies operating in a variety of activities in both industrial and service sectors. Similarly, the ownership and administration of these zones are not limited to government authorities but private or public-private partnership Table 3 and 4.
Female workers account for 60 — 70 per cent of zone work-force worldwide, a number that has remained consistent since the establishment of such zones. As such, the percentage of female workforce decreases as the activities in the zones diversifies away from simple assembly operations towards more technologically advanced sectors Taylor, ; Madani, In Malaysian EPZs, for example, 40 per cent of the workers are female, down from 60 per cent two decades ago.
ILO Database, Table 2: ILO Available from:What are the advantages & disadvantages of constructing genograms? Lacy Nichols Updated February 21, A genogram is a more complicated version of a family tree that uses symbols and shapes to illustrate connections and patterns among family members.
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