Two ideas that prevailed in ancient Egypt came to exert great influence on the concept of death in other cultures.
It was the site of a series of early cultural advances, including the first system of writing. Increased prosperity and security led to religious formalities of worship in temples and burial, in megalithic tombs.
It also led to an important series of contributions to the history of artespecially in ancient potterysculpture and metalwork. Mesopotamia was also home to megalithic art like that of Catalhoyuk in Asia Minor.
Egyptian Art CE. For a comparison with Far East pottery and sculpture, see: Chinese Artand also Traditional Chinese Art: For a comparison with the chronology of arts and culture in East Asia, see: Chinese Art Timeline c.
Origins Archeological excavations show that Mesopotamia was first settled about 10, BCE, by unknown tribes of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Around 7, BCE, after a short intermediate Epipaleolithic period, the culture changed from a primitive semi-nomadic style of hunting and gathering food, to a more settled type of lifestyle, based on farming and rearing of domesticated animals.
During this so-called "Neolithic" era, the formation of settled communities villages, towns and in due course cities led to a series of new activities, including a rapid increase in trade, the construction of boats to transport goods, a growth of religious beliefs and ceremonies.
All this led directly to improvements in food supply and a consequent rapid rise in population. Until the s, it was assumed that pottery did not appear until the Neolithic period 8, BCE: Furthermore, the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia was seen as one of the earliest centres of ceramics.
However recent discoveries of Paleolithic Chinese pottery prove that humans were making pots 10, years before the advent of farming. A series of cultures grew up, distinguished by their painted pottery. Figurines of clay and veined alabaster, amulets and stamp seals became increasingly sophisticated, and there are round structures at Arpachiyah, T-shaped houses at Tel as-Sawwan, while at Eridu, archeologists excavated a sequence of shrines - from an early mud-brick hut to an elaborate raised building with buttressed walls.
These buttresses were both decorative and structural and became a feature of Sumerian architecture. Towards the end of the 4th millennium there was a series of cultural innovations; wheel-made pottery appears, as does monumental architecture characterised, at Uruk, by huge shrines with complex plans and elaborately niched walls, or with engaged or free-standing columns, studded with a mosaic of coloured clay cones in geometric patterns.
At Uqair the whole temple was adorned with mural painting. Cylinder seals were carved with designs and these are our main source for the iconography of the different periods.
In addition, we know that the first use of copper occurred in Sumer, as far back as 5, as did the first evidence of hieroglyphic writing systems in 3,the first ever wheeled transport in 3, and the first cuneiform script.
All these cultural developments are clear indications of a literate, organized society. For more, see Sumerian Art c. By 3, BCE, as a result of these innovations, we find extensive urban development and the creation of at least 12 city-states, each ruled by a King. Increasing rivalry between these states left them vulnerable to invaders, like the Elamites c.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, aboutthe ravages of the Gutians, and the resurgence of Sumer culture under the leadership of Ur, Mesopotamia eventually formed itself into two separate nations: Mesopotamian Art Early Period c.
In addition, various artifacts and artworks began to be ornamented with precious metals. About BCE in Babylonia, occurred the earliest known instance of nail artwhen men coloured their nails with kohl, an ancient cosmetic containing lead sulfide.
For a comparison with Ancient Egypt, see: For a comparison with the Far East, see: Sequences of shrines, excavated in the Diyala valley, contained examples of sculpture in the round and evidence of advanced copper and bronze casting techniques, some bronze sculpture being made by the complicated cire-perdue process.
At Ur, many rich burials, some of them in vaulted tombs, contained beautiful gold, silver, lapis lazuli, coloured limestone and shell objects, jewellery, gaming-boards, harps, weapons and cylinder seals. See, for instance, the exquisite Ram in a Thicket c.
Clay reliefs or steles, used by the educated classes to narrate stories, were another popular art form, as were cylindrical or cubical statues: After a period of chaos, there was a Neo-Sumerian revival led by Ur. Many of the buildings set up by the rulers of the 3rd dynasty of Ur have been excavated, however, and the first true ziggurat or stepped temple pyramid dates from this period.
Egyptian Middle Kingdom Architecture.Egyptian mythology from Godchecker - the legendary mythology encyclopedia. Your guide to the Egyptian gods, spirits, demons and legendary monsters.
Our unique mythology dictionary includes original articles, pictures, facts and information from Ancient Egyptian Mythology: the Gods of the Pyramids.
Since we have been . Jun 27, · Ancient Mesopotamian Civilizations Introduction. The abundance of water created a great natural richness, to such a point that, according to the Bible, Paradise was located there.5/5(1).
If I had a choice to live in either Mesopotamia or Egypt, I would rather live in ancient Egypt. One reason is because people had more right than in Mesopotamia and the laws were more fair. Egypt also had very good soil for growing crops because of the minerals from the Nile river. In Egypt, there.
Learning about Ancient Mesopotamian Religion and Culture Located in the Tigris-Euphrates valley was the land of Mesopotamia. It was here that the world’s first cities were founded between – BC by the Sumerian people.
Compare Egyptian culture to Mesopotamian culture. How and why were they different? In what ways were they similar? It is natural to want to draw similarities to two early civilizations as great as Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, and they offer many differences and similarities.
Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared. The Origins Of Civilizations. Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Ancient Egypt. Besides Mesopotamia, a second civilization grew up in northeastern Africa, along the Nile. River. Egyptian civilization, formed by B.C., benefited from trade and Egyptian culture .