It is a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought which had tremendous influence on the history of Chinese civilization up to the 21st century.
The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics.
It also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating Chinese mores to the peasants.
The school's doctrines supported political authority using the theory of the mandate of heaven. It sought to help the rulers maintain domestic order, preserve tradition, and maintain a constant standard of living for the taxpaying peasants.
It trained its adherents in benevolence, traditional rituals, filial piety, loyalty, respect for superiors and for the aged, and principled flexibility in advising rulers.
Confucius had a traditional personal name Qiu, or Ch'iu and a formal name Zhongni, or Chung-ni.
Confucius's father died shortly after Confucius's birth. His family fell Chinas history on confucianism relative poverty, and Confucius joined a growing class of impoverished descendants of aristocrats who made their careers by acquiring knowledge of feudal ritual and taking positions of influence serving the rulers of the fragmented states of ancient China.
Confucius devoted himself to learning. At age 30, however, when his short-lived official career floundered, he turned to teaching others. Confucius himself never wrote down his own philosophy, although tradition credits him with editing some of the historical classics that were Chinas history on confucianism as texts in his school.
He apparently made an enormous impact on the lives and attitudes of his disciples, however. The book known as the Analects, which records all the "Confucius said, …" aphorisms, was compiled by his students after his death.
Because the Analects was not written as a systematic philosophy, it contains frequent contradictions and many of the philosophical doctrines are ambiguous.
The Analects became the basis of the Chinese social lifestyle and the fundamental religious and philosophical point of view of most traditionalist Chinese intellectuals throughout history.
The collection reveals Confucius as a person dedicated to the preservation of traditional ritual practices with an almost spiritual delight in performing ritual for its own sake. Doctrine Confucianism combines a political theory and a theory of human nature to yield a dao tao — a prescriptive doctrine or way.
The political theory starts with a doctrine of political authority based on the mandate of heaven. The legitimate ruler derives authority from heaven's command. The ruler bears responsibility for the well-being of the people and therefore for peace and order in the empire. Confucian philosophy presupposes a view of human nature in which humans are essentially social animals whose mode of social interaction is shaped by li convention or ritualwhich establishes value distinctions and prescribes activities in response to those distinctions.
Education in li, or social rituals, is based on the natural behavioral propensity to imitate models. Sages, or superior people — those who have mastered the li — are the models of behavior from which the mass of people learn.
Ideally, the ruler should himself be such a model and should appoint only those who are models of de te, or virtue to positions of prominence. People are naturally inclined to emulate virtuous models; hence a hierarchy of merit results in widespread natural moral education.
Then, with practice, all people can in principle be like the sages, by acting in accordance with li without conscious effort. At that point they have acquired ren jen, or humanitythe highest level of moral development; their natural inclinations are all in harmony with dao way.
The world is at peace, order abounds, and the harmony between the natural and the social sphere results in material well-being for everyone. This is Confucius's utopian vision, which he regards as modeled on the practice of the ancient sage kings.
Historical Development Confucianism emerged as a more coherent philosophy when faced with intellectual competition from other schools that were growing in the fertile social upheavals of preimperial China c. Daoism TaoismMohism, and Legalism all attacked Confucianism. A common theme of these attacks was that Confucianism assumed that tradition or convention li was correct.
Confucianism rose to the position of an official orthodoxy during the Han dynasty B. It absorbed the metaphysical doctrines of Yin the female principle and Yang the male principle found in the Book of Changes and other speculative metaphysical notions.
With the fall of the Han, the dynastic model, Confucianism fell into severe decline. Except for the residual effects of its official status, Confucianism lay philosophically dormant for approximately years.During most of Chinese history, Confucianism was seen as the preserver of traditional Chinese values, the guardian of Chinese civilization as such.
After struggling during the Qin dynasty, it emerged as the final and permanent victor during the later Han period and would dominate Chinese thought ever after. History. Neo-Confucianism was a revived version of old Confucian principles that appeared around the Song dynasty, with Buddhist, Taoist, and Legalist features.
The first philosophers, such as Shao Yong, Zhou Dunyi and Chang Zai, were cosmologists and worked on the Yi Jing. China's New Confucianism is a book that anyone with a deep interest in China can sink their teeth into, learn from, be challenged by, and thoroughly enjoy." --Stephen C.
Angle, Wesleyan University "Daniel Bell is without peer among contemporary political and social philosophers working on traditional and contemporary China/5(16).
Confucianism, the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th–5th century bce and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia. Although transformed over time, it is still the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese.
Its influence has also extended to other countries, particularly Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. BRIA 24 2 c The Development of Confucianism in Ancient China CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action FALL (Volume 24, No.
2) This philosophy deeply influenced China throughout most of its history. A series of dynasties, or ruling families, governed China for centuries. The first great dynasty was the Shang, . The history of China reaches back over 4, years.
In that time, China has created a culture rich in philosophy and the arts. China has seen the invention of amazing technologies such as silk, paper, gunpowder, and many other products. Over the millennia, China has fought hundreds of wars. It has.