Introduction to Communication and Civic Life COM 3 credits An overview of major approaches to the analysis and criticism of contemporary cultural concerns, situating these within the broader historical contexts of communication and cultural theory. Sophomore standing Credit for enrollment in approved study abroad programs. Organizational Communication COM 3 credits Microlevel, institutional and macrolevel analysis of the communication process in organizations. Organizational communication theories, including political economy, critical and poststructuralist approaches.
See Article History Alternative Titles: American Indian literature, Indian literature Native American literature, also called Indian literature or American Indian literature, the traditional oral and written literatures Native american storytelling lit paper the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
These include ancient hieroglyphic and pictographic writings of Middle America as well as an extensive set of folktales, mythsand oral histories that were transmitted for centuries by storytellers and that live on in the language works of many contemporary American Indian writers.
For a further discussion of the literature of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American literature ; American literature ; Canadian literature ; Caribbean literature.
General characteristics Folktales have been a part of the social and cultural life of American Indian and Eskimo peoples regardless of whether they were sedentary agriculturists or nomadic hunters.
As they gathered around a fire at night, Native Americans could be transported to another world through the talent of a good storyteller.
The effect was derived not only from the novelty of the tale itself but also from the imaginative skill of the narrator, who often added gestures and songs and occasionally adapted a particular tale to suit a certain culture.
One adaptation frequently used by the storyteller was the repetition of incidents. The description of an incident would be repeated a specific number of times. The number of repetitions usually corresponded to the number associated with the sacred by the culture; whereas in Christian traditions, for instance, the sacred is most often counted in threes for the Trinityin Native American traditions the sacred is most often associated with groups of four representing the cardinal directions and the deities associated with each or seven the cardinal directions and deities plus those of skyward, earthward, and centre.
The hero would kill that number of monsters or that many brothers who had gone out on the same adventure. This type of repetition was very effective in oral communication, for it firmly inculcated the incident in the minds of the listeners—much in the same manner that repetition is used today in advertising.
In addition, there was an aesthetic value to the rhythm gained from repetition and an even greater dramatic effect, for the listener knew that, when the right number of incidents had been told, some supernatural character would come to the aid of the hero, sometimes by singing to him.
For this reason, oral literature is often difficult and boring to read. Oral literature also loses effect in transcription, because the reader, unlike the listener, is often unacquainted with the worldview, ethicssociocultural settingand personality traits of the people in whose culture the story was told and set.
Because the effect of the story depended so much on the narrator, there were many versions of every good tale. Each time a story was told, it varied only within the limits of the tradition established for that plot and according to the cultural background of the narrator and the listeners.
While studies have been made of different versions of a tale occurring within a tribe, there is still much to be discovered, for instance, in the telling of the same tale by the same narrator under different circumstances.
These gaps in the study of folktales indicate not a lack of interest but rather the difficulty in setting up suitable situations for recordings. The terms myth and folktale in American Indian oral literature are used interchangeably, because in the Native American view the difference between the two is a matter of time rather than content.
American Indian mythology can be divided into three major cultural regions: North American cultures from the Eskimos to the Indians along the Mexican borderCentral and South American urban cultures, and Caribbean and South American hunting-and-gathering and farming cultures.
Though each region exhibits a wide range of development, there are recurrent themes among the cultures, and within each culture the importance of mythology itself varies. In North Americafor example, each tale can usually stand alone, although many stories share a cast of characters; in contrast, stories developed in the urban cultures of Central America and South America resemble the complicated mythologies of ancient Greece and are quite confusing with their many sexual liaisonshybrid monsters, and giants.
These mythologies are related to the concept that all animals have souls or spirits that give them supernatural power. Because humans have subsequently been differentiated from the animals, the animals appear in visions, and in stories they help the hero out of trouble.
Native American Storytelling Lit Paper Native American Storytelling November 12, ENG/ Native American Storytelling Native American literature is the root of cultural storytelling, which is told through oral tradition, this consist of stories and songs verbally. The Native American culture is known for its rich oral tradition – instead of using a written language to document their history, these indigenous people simply relied on their verbal language to share their history, customs, rituals, and legends through vivid narratives. Our City enjoys a legacy of living with art that began in the 19th century with the Fort Worth Public Library’s first painting purchase – Approaching Storm by George regardbouddhiste.com , the works of nationally renowned artists Vernon Fisher and Donald Lipski were installed in the Fort Worth Convention Center the first commissioned artwork by FWPA.
When there are many tales involving a single character—such as Raven, Coyoteor Manabozho—the transcriptions are linked together today and called cycles see e. The body of American Indian folklore does not include riddles as found in African folklore, for example, nor does it include proverbs, though there are tales with morals attached.
The importance of mythology within a culture is reflected in the status of storytellers, the time assigned to this activity, and the relevance of mythology to ceremonialism.
Mythology consists primarily of animal tales and stories of personal and social relationships; the actors and characters involved in these stories are also an index to the beliefs and customs of the people.
For example, the Navajo ceremonials, like the chants, are based entirely on the characters and incidents in the mythology.Native American Storytelling The group of people known as the Native Americans or American Indians are the native residents of the Northern and Southern American continents who are thought to have traveled across the Bering land bridge from Asia.
What types of writing were popular during the early days of the United States? In this lesson, we'll look at three major categories of 17th and 18th century American writing in more detail: Native. Native American Storytelling November 12, ENG/ Native American Storytelling Native American literature is the root of cultural storytelling, which is told through oral tradition, this consist of stories and songs verbally.
Native American Storytelling Traditions, Past, Present and Future Native American storytelling was focused on helping people understand their place in the natural world. Native American tales were - and still are - part metaphorical, part real, part spiritual, part mythological, part instructional and part transformational.
Ynglinga saga, the first book of Heimskringla, first mentions a Yule feast in After , it is the main feast of the year. Saga of Hákon the Good credits King Haakon I of Norway with the Christianization of Norway, as well as rescheduling the date of Yule to coincide with Christian celebrations held at the time.
The Native American history of storytelling is rich with culture. In this brief, introductory article, we discuss the importance of storytelling and how stories were passed down from generation to generation.
Each telling contributes to .