Banjar 11 It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity, but they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist, but are unknown, or entities that, as far as we know, do not exist. Banjar For successful reference to occur, we must also recognize the role of inference.
Speaker reference Speaker reference is a four-place relation, between a speaker, an expression, an audience, and a referent: Reference — an act by which a speaker or writer uses language to enable a listener or reader to identify something Yule, Words that we use to identify things are not in direct relation to these things: Have you seen my Yule?
Strawson exploited the fact that almost any referring expression, whether an indexical, demonstrative, proper name, or definite description, can be used to refer to different things in different contexts.
This fact, he argued, is enough to show that what refers are speakers, not expressions. Inference — any additional information use by the listener to connect what is said to what must be meant Yule, Anaphora Anaphora — is a subsequent reference to an already introduced entity.
Speakers writers use anaphora in texts to maintain reference.
Yeah, it is on the desk. A referring expression, in linguistics, is any noun phrase, or substitute for a noun phrase, whose function in a text spoken, signed or written on a particular occasion is to "pick out" an individual person, place, object, or a set of persons, places, objects, etc.
The technical terminology for "pick out" differs a great deal from one school of linguistics to another. The most widespread term is probably refer, and a thing "picked out" is a referent, as for example in the work of John Lyons.
In linguistics, the study of reference belongs to pragmatics,the study of language use, though it is also a matter of great interest to philosophers, especially those wishing to understand the nature of knowledge, perception, and cognition more generally.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The kinds of expressions which can refer as so defined are: In those languages which, like English, encode definiteness, referring expressions are typically marked for definiteness. In the examples given, this is done by the definite article the or the demonstrative adjective, here those.
The referent of such a pronoun may vary according to context - e. The intimate link between proper names and type 1 referring expressions is shown by the definite article that appears in many of them.
In many languages this happens far more consistently than in English.
Proper names are often taken to refer, in principle, to the same referent independently of the context in which the name is used and in all possible worlds, i. Referring can take place in a number of ways.
Of course, the speaker may use a mistaken description and still manage to refer successfully.
If I ask you to "Take this plate to the woman with the glass of soda", you may take it to the intended person even if, unbeknown to me, her soda is really water. On the other hand I may be accurate in calling it soda, but you may believe wrongly that it is water, and therefore not deliver the plate.
So accurate reference is not a guarantee of successful reference, and successful reference does not wholly depend on accurate reference. But naturally there is a strong positive correlation between them.
Proper names, on the other hand, generally achieve reference irrespective of the meaning of the words which constitute them if any are recognizable. The Anchor just serves to identify a particular building.
This point is more obvious still with those names like Sarah and London which have no lexical meaning of their own. In addition to the in many languages grammatically obvious singular and plural reference, linguists typically distinguish individual or specific reference, exemplified by each case presented so far, from generic reference, where a singular expression picks out a type of object etc.
Plural expressions can, of course, be interpreted in the same way, as in Bears are dangerous animals. Definite reference to single individuals is usually taken to be the prototypical type of reference.
Other types of reference recognized by linguists include indefinite as opposed to definite reference, and collective and distributive reference. Collective reference is the picking out of the members of a set as a set, whilst distributive reference is the picking out of the members of a set individually.
The difference may not be marked linguistically, but arrived at by interpretation in context.Pragmatics is a sub-field of linguistics and semiotics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the.
Reference and inference are parts of pragmatics. is a kind of verbal “pointing to” or “picking out” of a certain object or individual that one wishes to say something about. states that under the heading of reference we encounter one of the most fundamental and vital aspects of language and language use.
About: Probabilistic programming languages (PPLs) unify techniques for the formal description of computation and for the representation and use of uncertain knowledge.
PPLs have seen recent interest from the artificial intelligence, programming languages, . Interview by Richard Marshall. Robert Brandom is the pittsburghegelianasaurus big beast pragmatist lurking in the philosophical jungle. He’s always thinking about the importance of language when thinking about humans, about discursive understanding, about American and Wittgensteinian pragmatism, about analytic pragmatism, about Sellars, about compositionality, about semantic holism, about.
The words we use to identify things are in some direct relationship to those things. In discussing deixis, we assumed that the use of words to refer to people and things was a simple matter.
Deixis and distance Reference and inference Yule, "Pragmatics", Chapter Deixis and distance Reference and inference The co-text Summary Table of contents by Jesper, Mathilde, Julie and Mikkel "Person deixis" (me, you).