The origin and history of slang

This article is a draft that contains only a fraction of the material that I will eventually publish as a book. Some sections and references in this article are incomplete and will be expanded in the book, including never-before-published material from field research on Boogie Woogie by me and others. Africa is a rich continent that has for centuries provided the world with art, culture, labor, wealth, and natural resources. Being mindful of this fact suggests certain questions:

The origin and history of slang

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas Documents from the colonial period indicate that the use of "red" as an identifier by Native Americans for themselves emerged in the context of Indian-European diplomacy in the southeastern region of North America, before later being adopted by Europeans and becoming a generic label for all Native Americans.

Instead, "Indian" was translated into the native languages there as "men", "real people", or "original people". The combination with "skin", to form the term "redskin", can be dated precisely, to It arises from a translation of French peaux Rouges, which in turn had been written by the French translator from the Miami-Illinois languagein a letter sent by three chiefs of the Piankashaws to Col.

The term here refers to warriors specifically. The term "redskin" enters wider English usage only in the first half of the 19th century. These are white people and Indians talking together, with the white people trying to ingratiate themselves". He cites as the earliest example a set of "talks", or letters, from chiefs of the Piankeshaw to an English officer at Fort de Chartres.

One letter included "si quelques peaux The origin and history of slang, which was translated as "if any redskins", and the second included "tout les peaux rouges", which was translated as "all the redskins". There, the response of Osage chief "No Ears" Osage: Tetobasi to Madison's speech included the statement, "I know the manners of the whites and the red skins," while French Crow, principal chief of the Wahpekute band of Santee Siouxwas recorded as having said, "I am a red-skin, but what I say is the truth, and notwithstanding I came a long way I am content, but wish to return from here.

It concerned an expedition during the War of led by General Benjamin Howard against Indians in the Illinois and Mississippi territories: For instance, while the meeting with President Madison was contemporaneously recorded, the records were not published until Goddard suggests that a key usage was in a 20 July speech by Meskwaki chief Black Thunder at the treaty council at Portage des Siouxin which he is recorded as stating, "My Father — Restrain your feelings, and hear ca[l]mly what I shall say.

I shall tell it to you plainly, I shall not speak with fear and trembling. I feel no fear. I have no cause to fear. I have never injured you, and innocence can feel no fear. I turn to all, red skins and white skins, and challenge an accusation against me.

These novels were widely distributed, and can be credited with bringing the term to "universal notice". The first time the term appears in Bartlett's "Dictionary of Americanisms" inGoddard notes, the illustrative reference is to Last of the Mohicans.

Similarly, they identified others as "whiteskins" or "blackskins". Instead, what is cited as Native American usage was generally attributed to them by European writers.

Any use of "red" in its various forms, including redskin, by Native Americans to refer to themselves reflected their need to use the language of the times in order to be understood by Europeans.

Fenelon makes a more explicit statement that Goddard's article is poor scholarship, given that the conclusion of the origin and usage by Natives as "entirely benign" is divorced from the socio-historical realities of hostility and racism from which it emerged.

A linguistic analysis of 42 books published between and found that negative contexts for the use of "redskin" were significantly more frequent than positive ones. However, the use of the word "Indian" in a similarly selected set of books was nearly the same, with more frequent negative than positive contexts, indicating that it was not the term "redskin" that was loaded pejoratively, but that its usage represents a generally negative attitude towards its referent.

Goddard denies any direct connection to scalping, and says there is a lack of evidence for the claim. In a Winona, Minnesotanewspaper, the Daily Republican, printed an announcement: This sum is more than the dead bodies of all the Indians east of the Red River are worth.

The origin and history of slang

Frank Baum wrote an editorial upon the death of Chief Sitting Bull in which he advocates the annihilation of all remaining Redskins in order to secure the safety of white settlers, and because "better that they die than live the miserable wretches that they are.

The linguistic expert for the petitioner, Dr. Geoffrey Nunbergsuccessfully argued that whatever its origins, "redskins" was a slur at that time based upon passages from books and newspapers and movie clips, in which the word is inevitably associated with contempt, derision, condescension, or sentimental paeans to the noble savage.

In the United States, "redskin" is regarded as a racial epithet by some, [41] but as neutral by others, including some Native Americans.

Use of these terms by some members of minority communities does not mean that these words may be used by outsiders. Ross also notes that while activism on the issue may be from a minority of Native Americans, this is due to most being concerned with more immediate issues, but also says "The presentation of the name 'Redskins' is problematic for many Native Americans because it identifies Natives in a way that the vast majority of Natives simply don't identity ourselves.In the early days of public streets in the United States, roads were legally to be shared equally between cars and pedestrians.

Due to the danger this posed to pedestrians, particularly when automobiles became common, this changed to roads being nearly exclusively for use by vehicles. If a major portion of society deems the word tip to mean: To Insure Prompt Service then that is what the definition of the word is.

Take the word GAY as an example and precedence, where the original meaning of the word is replaced and regulated to being a “dated” definition.

The Focus of My Inquiry into Boogie Woogie. The quotations above from E. Simms Campbell and Clarence Williams are among the earliest accounts that attribute an origin of Boogie Woogie music to a specific geographical region, namely Texas.

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The slang can have multiple meanings. From "cool" to "hellish" and "evil" the term has evolved and settled in various regions of the globe. Old English originally used the . English language, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to Frisian, German, and Dutch (in Belgium called Flemish) languages.

English originated in England and is the dominant language of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and various island nations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

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