However, thepre-colonial Nigeria symbolises the methods or ways by which Nigerians govern themselves before the advent of colonialism. It means traditional systems preceded the era of colonialism. From the same position, the pre-colonial Nigeria varies from one region the the other because the ethnic and ethno-linguistic differences.
Oyo Empire During the 15th century Oyo and Benin surpassed Ife as political and economic powers, although Ife preserved its status as a religious center.
Respect for the priestly functions of the oni of Ife was a crucial factor in the evolution of Yoruban culture. The Ife model of government was adapted at Oyo, where a member of its ruling dynasty controlled several smaller city-states.
A state council the Oyo Mesi named the alafin king and acted as a check on his authority. Unlike the forest-bound Yoruba kingdoms, Oyo was in the savanna and drew its military strength from its cavalry forces, which established hegemony over the adjacent Nupe and the Borgu kingdoms and thereby developed trade routes farther to the north.
The Benin Empire —; called Bini by locals was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey.
Northern kingdoms of the Sahel[ edit ] The Songhai Empire, c. Prehistoric inhabitants adjusting to the encroaching desert were widely scattered by the third millennium BC, when the desiccation of the Sahara began. Trans-Saharan trade routes linked the western Sudan with the Mediterranean since the time of Carthage and with the Upper Nile from a much earlier date, establishing avenues of communication and cultural influence that remained open until the end of the 19th century.
By these same routes, Islam made its way south into West Africa after the 9th century. By then a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across western and central Sudan.
The most powerful of these states were GhanaGaoand Kanemwhich were not within the boundaries of modern Nigeria but which influenced the history of the Nigerian savanna. Ghana declined in the 11th century but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the 13th century.
Following the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali — founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade.
His successor Askia Muhammad Ture — made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili d.
Throughout the 16th century much of northern Nigeria paid homage to Songhai in the west or to Bornoa rival empire in the east. Kanem expanded westward to include the area that became Borno. The mai king of Kanem and his court accepted Islam in the 11th century, as the western empires also had done.
Islam was used to reinforce the political and social structures of the state although many established customs were maintained. Women, for example, continued to exercise considerable political influence.
By tradition the territory was conferred on the heir to the throne to govern during his apprenticeship. In the 14th century, however, dynastic conflict forced the then-ruling group and its followers to relocate in Borno, where as a result the Kanuri emerged as an ethnic group in the late 14th and 15th centuries.
The civil war that disrupted Kanem in the second half of the 14th century resulted in the independence of Borno. The need to protect its commercial interests compelled Borno to intervene in Kanem, which continued to be a theater of war throughout the 15th century and into the 16th century.
De-colonial states, —[ edit ] Savanna states[ edit ] During the 16th century, the Songhai Empire reached its peak, stretching from the Senegal and Gambia rivers and incorporating part of Hausaland in the east.
Concurrently the Saifawa Dynasty of Borno conquered Kanem and extended control west to Hausa cities not under Songhai authority. Songhai collapsed in when a Moroccan army conquered Gao and Timbuktu. Morocco was unable to control the empire and the various provinces, including the Hausa states, became independent.
The Fulani jihad states of West Africa, c. The destruction of Songhai left Borno uncontested and until the 18th century Borno dominated northern Nigeria.
Another factor was the military threat of the Tuareg centered at Agades who penetrated the northern districts of Borno. As a consequence Borno lost many northern territories to the Tuareg whose mobility allowed them to endure the famine more effectively. Borno regained some of its former might in the succeeding decades, but another drought occurred in the s, again weakening the state.
Ecological and political instability provided the background for the jihad of Usman dan Fodio.
Many Fulani moved into Hausaland and Borno, and their arrival increased tensions because they had no loyalty to the political authorities, who saw them as a source of increased taxation. By the end of the 18th century, some Muslim ulema began articulating the grievances of the common people.
Efforts to eliminate or control these religious leaders only heightened the tensions, setting the stage for jihad.
The Colonial and Pre-Colonial Eras in Nigeria This project is based on the goal of explaining an event in the relatively recent past by working progressively further into the past to uncover more and more information that seems to bear on the issues. Precolonial History of Nigeria Between the 11th century and European colonial conquest in the late 19th century, the area in and around Nigeria was home to a number of sophisticated and influential societies. Flag of British Colonial Nigeria Sculptural representation of Africa at the Colonial Office building on Whitehall street; created by Henry Hugh Armstead Lugard's immediate successor, Sir Hugh Clifford, was an aristocratic professional administrator with liberal instincts who had won recognition for his enlightened governorship of the Gold Coast.
The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. Akwa Akpa The modern city of Calabar was founded in by Efik families who had left Creek Town, farther up the Calabar riversettling on the east bank in a position where they were able to dominate traffic with European vessels that anchored in the river, and soon becoming the most powerful in the region.
The chiefs of Akwa Akpa placed themselves under British protection in InBritish claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition; and in the following year, the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie.
On 1 JanuaryNigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empirethe foremost world power at the time. Inthe area was formally united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.This is a great Nigeria regardbouddhiste.com you have to write or enlightened the people on the history of Nigeria with the different ethnicity and the different tribe we have.
Also the culture and tradition of each states in Nigeria. Precolonial History of Nigeria Between the 11th century and European colonial conquest in the late 19th century, the area in and around Nigeria was home to a number of sophisticated and influential societies.
Furthermore, I argue that Nigeria's experiences and phases are typical of the history of other colonies—especially African colonies. Ghana, another British West-African colony, also experienced a pre- and post-colonial history similar to Nigeria's.
When talking about Nigeria and its history, one must take into account how young of a country Nigeria actually is. Nigeria as a whole only dates back to , that’s when the British formed the country by grouping several small northern and southern regions.
Colonial Nigeria was the area of West Africa that later evolved into modern-day Nigeria, during the time of British rule in the 19th and 20th centuries. British influence in the region began with the prohibition of slave trade to British subjects in Flag of British Colonial Nigeria Sculptural representation of Africa at the Colonial Office building on Whitehall street; created by Henry Hugh Armstead Lugard's immediate successor, Sir Hugh Clifford, was an aristocratic professional administrator with liberal instincts who had won recognition for his enlightened governorship of the Gold Coast.